How do Social Networks and Gender Influence Adoption and Impact of Drought Maize varieties? the Case of Eastern Uganda

How do Social Networks and Gender Influence Adoption and Impact of Drought Maize varieties? the Case of Eastern Uganda

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Title: How do Social Networks and Gender Influence Adoption and Impact of Drought Maize varieties? the Case of Eastern Uganda
Author: Endeshaw, Habte; Dr. Fekadu, Beyene
Abstract: In light of limited performance of extension services in Uganda on the one hand, and the sizeable proportion of females engaged in agricultural labor force on the other, this study tried to provide explanation on how farmers’ choice of technology and the benefit thereof is determined by, inter alia, learning from other members as well as gender linked constraints. By focusing on maize-one of the most important staple crops in Uganda- and particularly on maize seeds developed for drought stress tolerance, this study attempted to uncover the underlying factors limiting the adoption of these technologies. It has also analyzed the impact of using these maize seeds on plot level yield, income as well as household welfare of adopting farmers. An important advancement in this study was to collect gender disaggregated plot level data from randomly identified 408 maize farm households (696 individuals by including spouses where it applies) from three districts (viz. Iganga, Tororo and Bulambuli)of Eastern Uganda. Models based on discrete choice theory that included multivariate probit, probit, and truncated regressions were used to estimate the co-determinant of key variables influencing discrete and continuous adoption decisions. The impact of gender and DT adoption was assessed in the framework of switching regression approaches. We found gender bias in distribution and access to most of the productive resources and services which favored male headed (MHH) plot managers to be better off in terms of the likelihood of DT maize adoption, maize yield as well as income. Factors such as plot manager’s gender, sources of information used, risk attitude, preference to yield, credit, farm size, tenure, size and characteristics of social networks of the plot manager and that of the wives were important determinant of DT adoption decisions. The influence of these factors was also found to interact with the gender of the plot manager. The presence of social learning effect and the role of wives in household production decision through their networks highlighted the importance of proper targeting and the need to maximize the spillover effect of social networks. The inverted-U relationship between the number of adopter networks and farmers’ likelihood of adoption indicated presence of free-riding (strategic delay) behavior. While there exist gender linked differences (gaps) in maize productivity and income, much of this differences were found to be results of observed as well as unobserved differences between the gender categories. Such gaps which are in favor of male heads as well as wives in male headed households (WMHH), compared to female headed plot mangers (FHH) were not because FHH are inefficient or incapable. Rather mainly because they operated in a different sets of constraints. If FHH’s characteristics had had the same return as the return to the characteristics of MHHs or WMHH, the yield and income gap would not only be reduced but also in some case exceeded that of their counterparts. The finding also showed that DT adoption has significant impact on plot (farm) level maize yield, income and household welfare, especially when compared with local maize. When compared with non-DT modern maize, the impact was found comparable suggesting that, in the absence of drought scenarios, DT and non-DT maize seeds can be used as substitutes.
Description: 284p.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/3022
Date: 2016-05


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